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徐善伟:男权重构与欧洲猎巫运动期间女性所遭受的迫害

更新时间:2020-05-05 11:09:56
作者: 徐善伟  
pp.20-22.

   7 LindaE.Mitchelled., WomeninMedievalWesternEuropeanCulture, pp.19-20.

   8 SusanMosherStuard, ed., WomeninMedievalSociety, UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress, 1976, pp.17-18, 27, 32-33.

   9 参见刘文明:《妇女在中世纪西欧城市工商业中的作用与地位》, 《首都师范大学学报》2002年第1期。

   10 LindaE.Mitchelled., WomeninMedievalWesternEuropeanCulture, p.309.

   11 JeffreyBurtonRussell, WitchcraftintheMiddleAges, CornellUniversityPress, 1972, p.282.

   12 LindaE.Mitchelled., WomeninMedievalWesternEuropeanCulture, p.309.

   13 LawrenceStone, TheFamily, Sex, andMarriageinEngland, 1500-1800, NewYork, 1979, pp.109-146.

   14 JonathanBarry, MarianneHesterandGarethRobertseds., WitchcraftinEarlyModernEurope:StudiesinCulturalandBelief, CambridgeUniversityPress, 1996, p.295, note.

   15 DeborahWillis, MalevolentNurture, Witch-HuntingandMaternalPowerinEarlyModernEngland, CornellUniversityPress, 1995, p.17.

   16 MerryE.Wiesner, WomenandGenderinEarlyModernEurope, p.126.

   17 MerryE.Wiesner, WomenandGenderinEarlyModernEurope, pp.252-253.

   18 MerryE.Wiesner, WomenandGenderinEarlyModernEurope, p.118.

   19 LindaE.Michell, WomeninMedievalWesternEuropeanCuture, p.253.

   20 MerryE.Wiesner, WomenandGenderinEarlyModernEurope, p.277.

   21 JonathanBarry, MarianneHesterandGarethRobertseds., WitchcraftinEarlyModernEurope:StudiesinCulturalandBelief, p.304.

   22 BarbaraEhrenreichandDeirdreEnglish, Witches, Midwives, andNurses:AHistoryofWomenHealers, TheFeministPress, 1973, pp.15-17.

   23 EmilieAmted., Women'sLivesinMedievalEurope:ASourcebook, NewYork, 1993, pp.108-112.

   24 JudithM.Bennett, ElizabethA.Clarketal., SistersandWorkersintheMiddleAges, TheUniversityofChicagoPress, 1989, p.53.

   25 JudithM.Bennett, ElizabethA.Clarketal., SistersandWorkersintheMiddleAges, p.54.

   26 BarbaraEhrenreichandDeirdreEnglish, Witches, Midwives, andNurses:AHistoryofWomenHealers, p.19.

   27 P.Levack, TheWitch-HuntinginEarlyModernEurope, p.139.

   28 ChristinaLarner, WitchcraftandReligion, p.151.

   29 EvelynHeinemann Witches:APsychoanalyticExplorationoftheKingofWomen, p.20.

   30 JudithM.Bennett, ElizabethA.Clarketal., SistersandWorkersintheMiddleAges, pp.55-56.

   31 P.Levack, TheWitch-HuntinginEarlyModernEurope, pp.139-140.有关女巫与接生婆之间的密切联系, 参见BarbaraEhrenreichandDeirdreEnglish, Witches, Midwives, andNurses:AHistoryofWomenHealers。

   32 克拉默和斯布伦吉论道:“以各种方式做接生婆的女巫杀害子宫中的婴儿, 并促成怀孕的女性流产;或者, 假如她们做不到这一点, 她们就把新生儿奉献给魔鬼。”参见HeinrichKr!?merandJacobSprenger, TheMalleusMaleficarum, trans.MontagueSummers, London, 1928, Ⅰ, Ⅺ。

   33 RobinBriggs, WitchesandNeighbors:TheSocialandCulturalContextofEuropeanWitchcraft, VikingBooks, 1996, pp.279-281.

   34 P.Levack, TheWitch-HuntinginEarlyModernEurope, p.154.H.C.埃里克·米德尔福特也指出, 在16和17世纪, “许多诸如通奸、堕胎、杀婴和施毒的犯罪都与巫术联结在了一起”。SeeH.C.ErikMidelfort, WitchHuntinginSouthwesternGermany, 1562-1684:TheSocialandIntellectualFoundations, StandfordUniversityPress, 1972, p.187. 

   35 DeborahWillis, MalevolentNurture, Witch-HuntingandMaternalPowerinEarlyModernEngland, p.66.

   36 BarbaraRosen, WitchcraftinEngland, 1558-1618, UniversityofMassachusettsPress, 1991, pp.74-75.

   37 许多西方学者对猎巫运动期间欧洲乡村的邻里关系进行了研究, 他们发现, 巫术指控通常发生在邻里之间, 这是由于社会变化导致了邻里关系的恶化。最早提出这一观点的则是英国的两位学者——托马斯和麦克法兰, 后来许多学者的研究也证实了这一点。参见KeithThomas, ReligionandtheDeclineofMagic, NewYork, 1971;A.Macfarlane, WitchcraftinTudorandStuartEngland, NewYorkandLondon, 1970;P.Levack,

   TheWitch-HuntinginEarlyModernEurope;DeborahWillis, MalevolentNurture, Witch-HuntingandMaternalPowerinEarlyModernEngland;RobinBriggs, WitchesandNeighbors——TheSocialandCulturalContextofEuropeanWitchcraft。

   38 DeborahWillis, MalevolentNurture, Witch-HuntingandMaternalPowerinEarlyModernEngland, pp.31-32.

   39 JennyKermodeandGarthineWalkereds, Women, CrimeandtheCourtsinEarlyModernEngland, LondonandDurham, NC:UCLPressandUniversityofNorthCarolinaPress, 1994, p.48.

   40 KermodeandWalker, Women, CrimeandtheCourtsinEarlyMordernEngland, p.57.

   41 DeborahWillis, MalevolentNurture, Witch-HuntingandMaternalPowerinEarlyModernEngland, pp.34-37.

   42 英国猎巫运动研究的奠基者托马斯就持此种观点, 最近则以布里格斯为代表。需要指出的是, 持此种观点的学者也并不否认受到指控的巫师大多数是女性。

   43 MerryE.Wiesner, WomenandGenderinEarlyModernEurope, pp.276-277.

   44 JonathanBarry, MarianneHesterandGarethRobertseds., WitchcraftinEarlyModernEurope:StudiesinCulturalandBelief, p.300.

   45 JonathanBarry, MarianneHesterandGarethRoberteds., WitchcraftinEarlyModernEurope:StudiesinCulturalandBelief, P.302.

  


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文章来源:史学理论研究 Historiography Quarterly 2007年04期
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