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刘征峰:负面清单、透明度与法治原则

更新时间:2018-07-24 22:51:05
作者: 刘征峰  
《国际经贸探索》2014年第9期;申海平:《菲律宾外国投资“负面清单”发展之启示》,《法学》2014年第9期;顾晨:《印度尼西亚“负面清单”改革之经验》,《法学》2014年第9期。

   [5]本文使用广义的贸易概念,既包含货物、技术和服务,也包含与这些领域相关的投资。

   [6] Patrick F.J.Macrory, Arthur E.Appleton & Michael G.Plummer, The World Trade Organization: Legal, Economic and Political Analy- sis (Volume I), US: Springer,2004, p.297.

   [7] Ibid.

   [8] See Martin Roy, Juan Marchetti & Hoe Lim,“Services Liberalization in the New Generation of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs):How Much Further Than the GATS?”, World Trade Review, Vol.6,2007, p.158.

   [9]例如,聂平香、戴丽华:《美国负面清单管理模式探析及对我国的借鉴》,《国际贸易》2014年第4期;张红显:《负面清单管理模式的法治之维》,《法学评论》2015年第2期;黄涛涛:《负面清单管理模式及其法治意义》,《法治论坛》2014年第2辑。

   [10] See Garsten Fink & Martin Molinreuevo,“East Asian Free Trade Agreements in Services: Key Architectural Elements”, Journal of Interna- tional Economic Law, Vol.11,2008, pp.269-270.

   [11] Ramon Torrent,“The Legal Toolbox for Regional Integration: A Legal Analysis from an Interdisciplinary Perspective”, ELSNIT Conference Paper, Barcelona, October 26-27,2012, p.9.

   [12] See e.g.Rodolf Adlung & Hamid Mamdouh,“How to Design Trade Agreements in Services: Top Down or Bottom Up?”, Working Paper of WTO ERSD -2013-08.

   [13] Gary Hufbauer & Sherry Stephenson,“Services Trade: Post Liberalization and Future Challenges”, Journal of International Economic Law,Vol.10,2007, p.612.

   [14] Sherry Stephenson,“A Comparison of Existing Services Trade Arrangements within APEC”, in Christopher Findlay & Tony Warren eds.,Impediments to Trade in Services: Measurement and Policy Implications, London: Routledge,2000, p.288.

   [15]值得注意的是,根据学者Sherry M.Stephenson的考察,西半球的发展中国家由于受到北美自由贸易协定的影响,更倾向于采用负面清单模式,唯一的例外是《南方共同体自由贸易协定》。其采用了一种混合模式。 See Sherry M.Stephenson,“Regional versus Multilateral Liberalization of Services”, World Trade Review, Vol.1,2002, p.194.

   [16]值得一提的是,东盟的投资框架协定在1998年最初采用了负面清单模式,后来发现这一方式过于轻率,匆忙和不切实际。在2001年,其协定又采用了正面清单模式,将开放领域限定在五个行业。有关于国内政治力量和共识对两种路径选择的影响,参见Bernard Hoekman & Patrick A.Messerlin,“Liberalizing Trade in Services: Reciprocal Negotiations and Regulatory Reform”, Paper of Conference “Services 2000- New Directions in Services Trade Liberalization”, Washington DC, June 1-2,1999.

   [17] See e.g.Karen Lapid,“Outsourcing and Offshoring under the GATS”, Journal of World Trade, Vol.40,2006, p.1.

   [18]美国从2017年1月23日起退出了TPP谈判,see Presidential Memorandum Regarding Withdrawal of the United States from the Trans - Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Agreement.

   [19] Wenhua Shan & Sheng Zhang,“The Potential EU-China BIT: Issues and Implications”, in Marc Bungenberg et al.eds., EU and Invest- ment Agreements, London: Hart Publishing,2013, pp.102-104; Vice-premier: Substantial Progress on China-US Trade Issues, http://english.gov.cn/state_ council/vice_ premiers/2014/08/23/content_281474983038636.htm, last visit on May 2,2015.

   [20]See Chen Huiping,“China-ASEAN Investment Agreement Negotiations ”, The Journal of World Investment & Trade, Vol.7,2006, p.158.

   [21]《商务部新闻发言人沈丹阳就中美积极推进投资协定谈判发表谈话》,中华人民共和国商务部网站,http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/ae/ag/201307/20130700196677.shtml,最后访问时间:2015年5月3日。

   [22]参见《关于加快实施自由贸易区战略的若干意见》第(八)条和第(九)条。

   [23]申海平:《菲律宾外国投资“负面清单”发展之启示》,《法学》2014年第9期。

   [24] See Executive Order No.98, s.2012, http://www.gov.ph/2012/10/29/executive-order-no-98-s-2012/, last visit on May 3,2015.

   [25] Ibid.

   [26] Ben Arnold O.De Vera,“Foreign Businessmen Say Philippines? Foreign Investment Negative List ‘ Too Negative’”, http://www.inter- aksyon.com/business/47945/foreign-businessmen-say-philippines-foreign-investment-negative-list-too-negative, last visit on May 4,2015.

   [27] OECD, OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Viet Nam 2009 Policy Framework for Investment Assessment, Paris: OECD Publishing,2009, p.34.

   [28]参见《中华人民共和国外国投资法(草案征求意见稿)》及其说明,中华人民共和国商务部网站,http://tfs.mofcom.gov.cn/arti- cle/as/201501/20150100871010.shtml,最后访问时间:2015年5月6日。

   [29] See Padideh Ala’ i,“From the Periphery to the Center? The Evolving WTO Jurisprudence on Transparency and Good Governance”, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol.11,2008, pp.779-780.

   [30] See GATT 1947 Article X.

   [31] Padideh Ala’ i,“From the Periphery to the Center? The Evolving WTO Jurisprudence on Transparency and Good Governance”, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol.11,2008, p.780.

   [32] Ibid, p.783.

[33] Report of the Panel, Canada— Import, Distribution and Sale of Certain Alcoholic Drinks by Provincial Marketing Agencies, DS17/R (Oct.16,1991), GATT B.I.S.D.(39th Supp.) at 27(1992); Report of the Panel, European Economic Community— Regulation on Imports of Parts and Components, L/6657(Mar.22,1990), GATT B.I.S.D.(37th Supp.) at 132(1991); Report of the Panel, Can- ada— Import Restrictions on Ice Cream and Yoghurt,(点击此处阅读下一页)


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